Typhoid Fever: Pakistan's Unique Challenges and Pragmatic Solutions

  • Maqsood Ahmad Institute of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad
  • Muhammad Saeed Institute of Microbiology, Government College University Faisalabad
  • Farhan Rasheed Department of Pathology, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore
  • Mohsin Khurshid Institute of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad
  • Muhammad Hidayat Rasool Institute of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad
  • Iqra Jamil Department of Microbiology, University of Central Punjab, Lahore
  • Noore Saba Peshawar Regional Blood Centre, Provincial Department of Health, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • Akhlaaq Wazeer Department of Biotechnology, Mirpur University of Science & Technology, Mirpur, AJK
  • Zahida Qasim Department of Biotechnology, Mirpur University of Science & Technology, Mirpur, AJK
Keywords: Typhoid Fever, XDR Typhoid, Drug resistant

Abstract

Typhoid fever is a life-threatening disease caused by gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enteric serotype Typhi. Every year, this disease affects almost 21 million people worldwide, the majority of whom are from South Asia. According to the WHO, almost 11 to 21 million cases of typhoid fever and about 200,000 deaths from typhoid fever occurred all over the world. Pakistan health authorities have confirmed that from 2016 to 2020, almost 22,354 cases of typhoid fever were reported, out of which 15,717 cases were extensive drug-resistant typhoid fever reported from the different regions of Sindh. These calculations are used to measure the disease rate of typhoid fever, ratio is about 15.5/1,000, and the XDR strain of typhoid fever is highly resistant to the antibiotic, also known as extensive drug resistance. The diagnosis of typhoid fever is done by culture tests, serological test, nucleic acid assays, protein markers, and biomarkers. The proper diagnosis is very important to ensure the strain of typhoid fever, so treatment should be started accordingly.

Author Biographies

Maqsood Ahmad, Institute of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad

PhD Scholar Microbiology

Institute of Microbiology, Government College University Faisalabad

Email: maqsoodahmad64@yahoo.com

Muhammad Saeed, Institute of Microbiology, Government College University Faisalabad

PhD Scholar Microbiology

Institute of Microbiology, Government College University Faisalabad

Email: Mian.muhsaeed@gmail.com Contact 03013187007

Farhan Rasheed, Department of Pathology, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore

FCPS Microbiology

Associate Professor Pathology (Microbiology)

Allama Iqbal Medical College Lahore

Email: dr.farhanrasheed@gmail.com

Mohsin Khurshid, Institute of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad

PhD Microbiology

Associate Professor Microbiology

Institute of Microbiology, Government College University Faisalabad

Email: mohsinkhurshid@gcuf.edu.pk  

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool, Institute of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad

PhD Microbiology

Professor of Microbiology

Director Institute of Microbiology, Government College University Faisalabad

Email: drmhrasool@gcuf.edu.pk

Iqra Jamil, Department of Microbiology, University of Central Punjab, Lahore

PhD Scholar

Lecturer, Department of Micrbiology University of Central Punjab Lahore

Email: iqrajameel@hotmail.com

Akhlaaq Wazeer, Department of Biotechnology, Mirpur University of Science & Technology, Mirpur, AJK

Mirpur University of Science & Technology/

State TB Reference Laboratory, MoNHS, Regulation & Coordination, Pakistan

Email: akhlaaqwazeer@gmail.com

Zahida Qasim, Department of Biotechnology, Mirpur University of Science & Technology, Mirpur, AJK

Associate Professor

Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College/

Divisional Headquarters Teaching Hospital, Mirpur, AJ&K

Published
2024-04-02
Section
Review Articles

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