Frequency and MIC-based Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of MDR and XDR Gram Negative Isolates of Blood Culture Specimens in a Tertiary Care Setting

  • Asma Ejaz Department of Pathology, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore
  • Farhan Rasheed Department of Pathology, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore
  • Muhammad Bilal Department of Microbiology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat
  • Gul Fraz Department of Pathology, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore
  • Saadia Chaudhary Department of Pathology, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore
  • Mian Zahid Sarfraz Department of Pathology, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, Multidrug-resistant, Extensively drug-resistant, Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations, Antimicrobial stewardship, Colistin resistance, Public health challenge


The escalation of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Gram-negative bacteria, particularly multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) pathogens, posed a significant challenge in tertiary care settings. This paper comprehensively analyzed the antimicrobial resistance profile of MDR and XDR Gram-negative isolates from blood culture specimens at Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, a leading tertiary care facility. Over a period of one year, 9600 blood culture specimens were processed, revealing a high incidence of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics, with notable findings including 100% susceptibility to Colistin and over 90% resistance to several commonly used antibiotics such as Ciprofloxacin and Piperacillin/Tazobactam. Among the positive isolates, 33.8% were classified as MDR and 66.2% as XDR. The study emphasized the critical role of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) in guiding therapeutic decisions, highlighting the wide variability in resistance patterns and the necessity for personalized antimicrobial therapy. The prevalence of MDR and XDR isolates underscored the urgent need for advanced treatment modalities, comprehensive surveillance, and robust antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. Additionally, the study pointed to the emergence of colistin resistance as a critical challenge in managing infections caused by these pathogens. Through detailed analysis and discussion, this study illuminated the grave challenge posed by AMR in tertiary care settings. It emphasized the importance of innovative approaches to antimicrobial stewardship, developing new antimicrobial agents, and ongoing surveillance to effectively combat this public health crisis.

Original Articles