Limb Defects in Developing Chick Embryos after Administration of Glucose

  • Ruqqia Shafi Minhas Assistant professor, Department of Anatomy, Fazaia Medical College, Air University, Islamabad
  • M. Yunus Khan Professor/Hod,Department of Anatomy, CPSP Regional Centre, Islamabad
  • Anber Saleem Assistant Professor Anatomy Department, Islamabad Medical and Dental College, Islamabad


Objective: To assess the role of administered glucose on gross development of limbs of the chick embryos, in comparison with age matched controls.
Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs of Egyptian Fayyumi breed were injected with glucose (5% weight/volume solution) into egg albumen. The eggs were put in the incubator under standard conditions of temperature and humidity. Eggs were divided in two groups, control (A) and experimental (B). Each group is subdivided in two subgroups comprising of 30 eggs each. Eggs were opened on day 10 of incubation in subgroup (A1, B1) while eggs from subgroup (A2, B2) were allowed to hatch on day 21 or day 22 of incubation. The exposed embryos were compared with age matched control subgroups. Effects of glucose were assessed by observing limb defects in the embryos from two groups.
Results: The experimental animals had limb defects manifested as absent, one hind limb in 5 out of 53 (9.433%). Both hind limbs were absent in 6/53 (11.32%). In turned phalanges with inability to stand and limping gait was found in 8/53 (13.79%). No embryo of the control group demonstrated such findings.
Conclusion: Administration of glucose resulted malformation such as limb defects and turned digits in growing chick embryos. 

Original Articles