Altered Coagulation Pattern in Different Histological Grades of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Kiran Shaikh Lecturer, Department of Pathology, Isra University Hyderabad, Pakistan
  • Ghulam Shah Nizamani Professor, Department of Pathology, Isra University Hyderabad, Pakistan
  • Yar Muhammad Nizamani Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Isra University Hyderabad, Pakistan
  • Naila Nizamani PhD Scholar, Isra University Hyderabad, Pakistan.
  • Amin Fahim Associate Professor, Department of Pathology, Isra University Hyderabad, Pakistan
  • Farkhunda Nadeem Professor, Department of Pathology, Isra University Hyderabad, Pakistan
Keywords: coagulation, D-Dimers, Fibrinogen, Prothrombin time, Squamous cell carcinoma, Thrombin


Background: The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma has doubled in the last three decades associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The incidence of bleeding and/or thrombosis in advanced stage cancer necessitates a need for research in blood coagulation abnormalities in malignancy. The objective of the present study was to determine the alteration in coagulation pattern among patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Pathology department of Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad over a period of 06 months. A total of 126 samples were selected through non-probability convenient sampling. Both male and female patients of all age groups having SCC of skin, gastrointestinal and genital tract were included. The coagulation profile was analyzed by Sysmax CA 50 and Nycocard reader II. Data was entered into SPSS version 22.0 and results were analyzed.

Results: The mean age of the patients with SCC in the present study was 55.5 ± 12 years with more male patients (n=81; 64.3%) as compared to females (n=45; 35.7%). Oral SCC was found to be the most common site of squamous cell carcinoma (43.7%). Majority of the patients had well differentiated SCC (42.1%) followed by moderately differentiated (40.5%) and poorly differentiated SCC (17.4%). The comparison of severity of SCC with coagulation profile revealed that PT (P=0.01), APTT (P=0.001), D-dimers (P=0.01 and TT (P=0.01) were significantly increased, whereas fibrinogen was significantly decreased (P=0.001).

Conclusions: The histological differentiation of SCC (from well differentiated to poorly differentiated tumors) showed a highly significant association with different coagulation profile parameters like PT, APTT, BT, CT, D-dimer, TT, and fibrinogen levels.

Original Articles