Clinical Risk Factors and Angiographic Pattern of Coronary Artery Disease in Young Females
Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with the highest mortality in women around the world. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical risk factors and angiographic pattern of coronary artery disease in young versus old age females having CAD.
Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Cardiology, Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi (CPE) Institute of Cardiology Multan, Pakistan from April 2018 to December 2018. All females with diagnosis of angina and consistent ischemic changes on ECG were enrolled in the study. A total of 230 females were included with 123 patients aged <45 years and 107 patients aged >45 years. Comparison of patient characteristics, clinical risk factors and angiographic pattern in young and old age females was done by using SPSS version 21 statistical software.
Results: Prevalence of hypertension (P=0.001), dyslipidemia (P=0.06) and diabetes mellitus (P=0.007) was significantly higher in females of older age group (>45 years). Similarly, a larger number of older age females (32; 29.9%) presented with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) as compared to young female patients (22; 17.88%) (P=0.03). Regarding angiographic patterns of CAD, there was no difference in the prevalence of single vessel disease (SVD), double vessel disease (DVD) and triple vessel disease (TVD) between the groups. Normal angiogram was found in 13 (12.3%) old age females versus 35 (28.8%) young females, respectively (P=0.002).
Conclusions: The risk factors profile and clinical presentation of CAD is different in young female patients with CAD. There is an essential need to determine the coronary atherosclerosis factors in young females and these women should be treated more aggressively to prevent adverse cardio-vascular outcomes.
Key words: Angiographic Pattern, Coronary Artery Disease, Clinical Pattern, Young Females
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