Histomorphometric Variations of the Placenta in Normal and Hypertensive Pregnancies
Background: Pregnancy-induced hypertension is a leading cause of deleterious changes in the placenta resulting in decreased blood supply towards the placenta. The objective of the current study was to analyze the histo-morphometric variations in the placenta of women with or without known pregnancy-induced hypertension.
Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in the Gynecology and obstetrics section of Nazeer Hussain Medical Complex, Hyderabad in collaboration with Isra University, Hyderabad from March 2019 to August 2019. A total of 100 placentae were selected and divided into two groups (control and study groups) based on the presence or absence of hypertension in pregnancy. The observations of the control group placenta were compared with the study group placentas. All placentae were observed for morphometric and histological changes. SPSS ver. 22 was used to analyze the collected data.
Results: There was an increase in the mean weight of placentae among the control group as compared to the group having known hypertension cases and the difference was statistically significant (p-value <0.05). The fetoplacental weight ratio was increased among the hypertension group when compared to the statistically insignificant control group (p-value <0.05). Various gross (infarction, calcification) and histological changes (hyalinised villi, intervillous hemorrhage, decreased villous vascularity) were observed in the placentae of the hypertensive group as compared to the normal group.
Conclusion: The findings of the study concluded that Preeclampsia/PIH poses harmful and serious histo-morphometric variations in the placental tissues that affect fetal outcome.
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