Response of Hepatitis B Vaccine in Children with Celiac Disease – An Experience at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad Pakistan
Background: Celiac Disease (CD), characterized by chronic small intestinal inflammation, is an immune-mediated disorder, with a strong family history and association with DQ2 HLA haplotype. It has been postulated that children with CD show less response to hepatitis B vaccine due to overexpression of HLA-DQ2 haplotype. This study was done to determine the response of hepatitis B vaccine in children with CD in our tertiary care setting in the Hazara region of eastern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Pediatrics outpatient department (OPD) of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad Pakistan from April 2018 till March 2020. Children with CD (n=38) aged 1-14 years with completed HBV vaccination, anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA antibody (tTG-IgA) >150 IU/ml and/or typical histological findings of CD on small-bowel biopsy, were included in the study. Hepatitis B surface antibody (HbsAb) titer of ≥10 mIU/ml was taken as antibody positive, while HbsAb levels < 10 mIU/ml were considered as vaccine non-responsive. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Chi square test was applied for comparison with P-value < .05 taken as significant.
Results: Out of 38 diagnosed cases of CD, 15 (39.5%) were males and 23 (60.5%) were females. Mean age of children was 8.32±3.26 years with an age range of 3-14 years. HbsAb levels ranged from 0.10 to 62.7 mIU/ml with a mean of 11.2+17.42 mIU/ml. HbsAb levels were less than 10.0 IU/ml in 73.7% of children with CD. Small intestinal biopsy was performed in 11 (28.9%) patients. There was a significant relationship between anti tTG-IgA levels and histopathology findings with P-value of .001.
Conclusions: In children having celiac disease, there was low rate of protective antibody response to hepatitis B vaccine.
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