Impact of Caffeine and Vitamin D3 on the Development of Neonate Mice Femur Growth Plate

  • Maimoona Khan Assist Prof Anatomy, Mohi-ud-Din Islamic Medical College, AJK
  • Abdullah Qamar Assist Prof Anatomy, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi
  • Ayesha Ali PG Trainee, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi
  • Faiza Umbreen Assist Prof Anatomy, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi
  • Fareeha Mushtaq Assist Prof Anatomy, Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College, AJK
Keywords: Caffeine, Femur, Hypertrophy zone, Proliferative zone, Vitamin D3.


Background:  High dosage of caffeine can influence histological changes during bone development in the newborns, while vitamin D3 has also its effect on such changes.  Main objectives of the study were to determine the effects of caffeine on the histomorphology of developing femur and the role of vitamin D3 along with caffeine on the femur of BALB/c mice.

Methodology: The animal experimental study was carried out in the National Institute of Health, Islamabad in collaboration with the Anatomy Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from October 2014 till October 2015.  Thirty pregnant mice, weighing 26-28g, were chosen and grouped into 3 equal sets of ten mice each.  Control group G1 was fed normal diet with ad libitum access to water.  Experimental group G2, along with the above diet, was provided caffeine at 10mg/100g body weight as a single dose on every second day using oral gavage for 3 weeks.  Experimental group G3 was administered with caffeine at 10mg/100g body weight on every second day along with vitamin D3 0.1µg/day for 3 weeks.  At completion of the study, neonate mice femurs were analysed to see the changes on the proliferative and hypertrophy zone heights of growth plate. 

Results:  Proliferative and hypertrophy zones of control group G1 mice mean height ±SD was measured as 540±10.99μm and 164±6.609μm, respectively, while for experimental group G2 the same height was observed as 443.5±12.258μm and 138.25±6.129μm, respectively.  For experimental group G3 mice mean height ± SD of these zones was found as 474±3.839μm and 144.25±3.726μm, respectively.

Conclusion:  Ingestion of caffeine modified the femur's proliferative and hypertrophy zones height of the growth plate; however, vitamin D3 dosage mitigated this consequence.

Original Articles