Pattern of Biopsy-Proven Renal Disease in Pakistan: A Single Center Experience

  • khawar sultan PIMS Islambad
Keywords: Glomerulonephritis, Renal Biopsy, Renal Disease, Renal histopathology


Background: This study was conducted to determine pattern (spectrum) of renal diseases on basis of renal biopsy in a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad.

Methodology: This retrospective observational study was conducted at Nephrology department of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad from February 2012 to April 2020. Results of all biopsies done during this period were analyzed to determine the prevalence of different renal diseases on basis of histopathology and immunofluorescence.

Results: There were 254 kidney biopsy samples studied during the course of study. Out of total 254 patients 133 (52.4%) were male and 121 (47.6%) were female.  Mean age of participants was 34.47±7.67 years (Range:15-60 years). Primary glomerulonephritis and secondary glomerulonephritis was found in 169 (66.5%) and 48 (18.9%) respectively, while tubulo-interstitial disease was reported in 37 (14.6%) of the total biopsies. Among 169 biopsies that showed primary GN, IgA Nephropathy (IgAN) was the most common in 16% of the biopsies, followed by membranous GN in 15.4% while membranoproliferative GN (MPGN) was seen in 13.6%, and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) was seen in 13% of primary GN. Among 48 biopsies with secondary GN, lupus nephritis (LN) was found to be most common in 83.3% followed by amyloidosis in 6.3%. Among 37 biopsies having tubulo-interstitial disease, acute tubular nephritis (ATN) and renal cortical necrosis was seen in 29.7% each followed by tubulo-interstitial nephritis in 18.9% and acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) was seen in 16.2%.

Conclusion: This study shows that primary GN is the most common finding on renal biopsy. Among them IgA Nephropathy is the commonest lesion followed by membranous nephropathy, MPGN and FSGS. Among secondary GN, Lupus Nephritis is the commonest lesion.

Key words: Glomerulonephritis, Renal Biopsy, Renal Disease, Renal histopathology

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