Vascular Complications and their Risk Factors in Patients of Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Introduction: To evaluate the vascular complications and their correlation with different risk factors among type-2 diabetic patients in Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan.
Methodology: Cross-sectional study was conducted at the department of medicine Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad from March to September 2021. Type 2 diabetics of either sex, between ages 20 and 70 years, on diabetic medication, were included in the study. While patients with type I diabetes, unconscious or with any mental health issues were excluded. A Non-random consecutive sampling technique was applied for the selection of participants. Socio-demographic, disease and medication information was collected using a written questionnaire while serum glucose level, albumin and lipid profile was analyzed.
Results: Over half of the participants (51.72%) were females, while most (70.87%) of the participants were aged < 40 years. A total of 124(28.5%) patients showed symptoms of macro-vascular complications with most (16.78%) of them having coronary artery disease. A significant relation (p<0.05) was found between coronary artery disease and age, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, body mass index and serum triglycerides. Peripheral vascular disease was significantly related (p<0.05) to the duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure and serum triglyceride. While significant relation (p<0.05) between cerebrovascular disease with age, systolic and diastolic BP was there.
Conclusion: Coronary artery disease seems to be the most common macro-vascular complication among type 2 diabetic patients, with a high prevalence of risk factors such as advanced age, duration of DM, male sex, hypertension, Body Mass Index, and serum triglycerides.
Keywords: Coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, Macro-vascular complications, peripheral vascular disease.
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