A Descriptive Correlational Study of Vascular Foramina in Adult Human Femora in Cadavers in Pakistan
Background: This study was conducted to study the variations in the number and location of nutrient and epiphyseal vascular foramina of the femur in the Pakistani population
Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from April -June '2022 after getting ethical approval. Data collection tool: 24-gauge hypodermic needles & measuring tapes.
Data collection and Analysis: SPSS & Excel
Inclusion & exclusion criteria: Anatomically sound bones were included from the bone bank of RMU; pathological, deformed bones were excluded
Results: Out of 80 bones 66.6% had single nutrient foramina, whereas 31.3% had two on the shaft. 82.05% of foramina were type II, 16.67% were type I and 1.26% were type III. Only 2.5% had no foramina. Majorly the nutrient foramina were found on the medial surface, medial lips or between the lips of linea aspera. There was no significant difference bilaterally in the mean foraminal index, foraminal length, or several epiphyseal vascular foramina, which were 18.65 cm, 42.66 cm, and 16 cm respectively.
Conclusion: Most of the nutrient foramina in the femora were found in the middle third of the shaft, either on the medial lip of the Linea Aspera or on the shaft’s medial surface; however, variations in their location have been found. The mean epiphyseal vascular foramen ranged from 6 to 26.
The article finds its implications in orthopaedic surgery and osteogenesis.
Key words: Epiphyses, Diaphysis, Femur, long bones, Hip joint, Arteries, Pathology, Research, osteogenesis, Population
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