Relationship between Inflammatory Markers and Disease Outcome in COVID-19
Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been labelled as a global pandemic and a cause of documented high mortality rates among severe or critical patients. This has been linked with hyperinflammation of the innate and adaptive immune systems and the resulting cytokine storm. Our study aims to evaluate the relationship between inflammatory markers and disease outcomes in COVID-19.
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Federal Government Polyclinic (FGPC) Hospital, Islamabad for a period of 3 months. All the patients who had either RT-PCR for COVID-19 or HRCT findings suggestive of COVID were included in the study. The inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein (CRP), D-Dimers, and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were done and a combined score DLC was calculated. The need for Oxygen (litres/min), Bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP), or Mechanical Invasive Ventilation was documented.
Results: The study was conducted on 213 patients which included 119(56%) male patients and 94(44%) female patients. COVID-19 PCR was positive in 193(90.6%) while 20 patients (9.4%) had a negative PCR but HRCT suggestive of COVID. HRCT was done in a total of 46 patients out of the 213 patients and 45 had features suggestive of COVID-19. The AUROC was 0.686(0.61-0.75) for D dimers, 0.688(0.61-0.75) for LDH, and 0.649(0.517-0.72) for CRP respectively, and Spearman rho values of (0.326, 0.328 and 0.266) respectively with a p-value (0.000).
Conclusion: D-dimer, LDH and CRP individually as well as a combined score of the inflammatory markers (DLC) and Oxygen requirement had a significant correlation with the mortality of the COVID-19 patients.
Key words: COVID-19, CRP, LDH, D dimers, DLC score.
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