Potential of Gut Microbiome in mosquitoes for Dengue Vector Control
Medically important mosquito species belonging to genus Aedes are a major public health concern due to their ability to be efficient vectors of dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, and other arboviruses. With limited vaccines available and no effective therapeutic treatments against arboviruses, the control of Aedes mosquito populations is currently the only strategy to prevent disease transmission. The risk of contracting dengue infection has increased dramatically since 190s. This upward trend is due to increases in long-distance travel, population growth and urbanization, lack of sanitation, ineffective mosquito control, and increases the surveillance and official reporting of dengue cases. Traditional control of mosquito vectors using various insecticides has caused toxic effect on environment and living communities, pro magnification, non- target effect and above all developed resistance in vector mosquitoes. Therefore, new tools and strategies are required to control mosquito vectors to control these diseases. Recent studies on midgut and other organs in mosquito vectors indicated the presence of diverse and dynamic microbial flora, known as microbiota. These microbes are mostly containing symbiotic microbiota play a key role in mosquito physiology, reproductive capacity and immunity. The midgut microbiota have also suggested to alter the competency of mosquitoes to transmit various pathogens (arboviruses, malaria parasites etc.). Many of these symbiotic bacteria have been explored for the potential to combat mosquito borne diseases such as dengue, malaria, Zika, yellow fever etc. The possibility to rear mosquitoes in which a particular bacterial species is dominant among the gut microbiota supports the development of strategies based on symbionts that induce antiviral responses or antiviral molecules in Ades mosquitoes
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