Diabetes Mellitus and its Laboratory Diagnosis
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia either due to deficiency of insulin production or resistance of organs to the effect of normal amount of insulin or both.1 In healthy individuals after taking meals, according to the blood glucose concentration appropriate amount of insulin is produced by the pancreas and this insulin transports glucose from blood into the cells. In diabetic individual, either little or no insulin is produced by the pancreas, or the cells do not give appropriate response to the produced insulin. This insulin dysfunction leads to decreased synthesis and increased degradation of glycogen, protein and fat in the body, ultimately causing hyperglycemia and overflow of glucose into urine.2 Characteristic symptoms of diabetes are thirst, polyuria, weight loss and blurring of vision. Most severe form is characterized by ketoacidosis or non ketotic hyperosmolar coma, ultimately leading to stupor, coma and death. Chronic hyperglycemia develops pathological and functional changes characterized by retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Risk of cardiovascular, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular diseases is also common in chronic state.3 Diabetes
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