Swallowing Difficulties with Tracheostomy: A Neuro-Rehabilitation Perspective


Swallowing and breathing are complex and highly coordinated functions. These functions depend on well-coordinated work of many organs with larynx and nervous system playing a critical role. Disturbance in one of these functions negatively affects the other. Surgical airways like tracheostomies are required in a number of situations, including but not limited to major head and neck procedures, cases with decreased lung function, excessive bronchial secretions and cases requiring neuro-rehabilitation when prolonged airway is required for mechanical ventilation. Extensive neuro-rehabilitation is required since patients with surgical airway may develop swallowing difficulties including dysphagia and/or aspiration with a very high prevalence, which can pose a threat to life. This article reviews the current status of the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for swallowing difficulties with special emphasis on current neuro-rehabilitative strategies. Electronic databases including Medline, Web-of-science, Cochrane Library, and Google scholar were used for literature search. Downloaded articles were subsequently assessed independently by two researchers to determine suitability for inclusion in the study.
Key words: Neurorehabilitation, Tracheostomy, Transcranial direct current stimulation, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, swallowing difficulty


Author Biographies

Ghulam Saqulain, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Capital Hospital, CDA Islamabad

Dr. Ghulam Saqulain, D.L.O., F.C.P.S (Otorhinolaryngology)

Head of Department, Department of Otorhinolaryngology

Capital hospital, Islamabad

Nazia Mumtaz, Shifa Tameer-e- Millat University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Dr. Nazia Mumtaz, PhD (Rehabilitation Sciences)
In-charge Post Graduate Programs, Allied Health Sciences,
Shifa Tameer-e- Millat University, Islamabad, Pakistan
E-Mail: nmumtazslp@gmail.com

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