Evaluation of Dental Caries and Periodontal Health Status in Children with Autism: a Case Control Study

  • Ahmed Bin Khalid Khan Altamash institute of Dental medicine
  • Seeme Nigar Altamash institute of Dental medicine
  • Naseer Ahmed Altamash institute of Dental Medicine
  • Anum Tanwir Baqai Medical University
  • Chander Kumar Dow dental College
  • Sara Altamash Altamash institute of Dental medicine
Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Dental caries, Periodontitis

Abstract

Background: Dental problems are common in autistic children due to poor oral hygiene. During the dental treatment, main challenge is reduced ability of autistic kids to communicate. The objective of this study was to investigate about the oral health status of autistic children and to compare the risk of dental caries and periodontal disease between children with autism and healthy controls.

Methodology: This case-control study was conducted at the Milestone Charitable Trust and Defense Housing Authority (DHA), Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed School, for the duration of 04 months (1st Dec 2019 – 30th March 2020). Among cases, 67 autistic children and among controls,67 healthy children, of age 7 to 17 years, of either gender, were included. All the participants were examined and assessed for presence or absence of any carious lesions, and periodontal health. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 23.

Results: The overall mean age of included children was 12.51±2.99 years. Of 134 children, 53.7% were males and 46.3% females. The odds of periodontal disease were 5.52 times higher in autistic children as compared to healthy children (p < .001). The odds of dental caries were 3.43 times higher in autistic children as compared to healthy children (p < .001). In both age groups (<=10 years and >10 years), the risk of periodontal disease and dental caries was higher among autistic children as compared to normal children. While, according to gender, the risk of dental caries was higher among male autistic children as compared to normal children.

Conclusion: The odds of dental caries and periodontal disease were higher among autistic children as compared to healthy controls.

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Dental caries, Periodontitis

Author Biographies

Ahmed Bin Khalid Khan, Altamash institute of Dental medicine

Senior Registrar, Department of Periodontology, Altamash Institute of Dental Medicine, Karachi, Pakistan.

Seeme Nigar, Altamash institute of Dental medicine

Senior Registrar, Department of Oral Pathology, Altamash Institute of Dental Medicine, Karachi, Pakistan

Naseer Ahmed, Altamash institute of Dental Medicine

Associate Professor, Department of Prosthodontics,  Altamash Institute of Dental Medicine, Karachi, Pakistan.

Anum Tanwir, Baqai Medical University

Senior Registrar, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.

 

Chander Kumar, Dow dental College

Associate Professor, Department of Periodontology, Dow Dental College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi Pakistan.

 

Sara Altamash, Altamash institute of Dental medicine

Assistant Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Altamash Institute of Dental Medicine, Karachi, Pakistan.

Published
2022-06-30
Section
Original Articles

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